Assignment 1, Blog 5 : Traditional media – RADIO

In Taiwan, broadcasters have been concerned about the gradual decline in listening rate, thinking about how to survive in the digital media era. But in the United States, according to the Nielsen survey, Americans not only listen to radio, and listen to radio for two consecutive years the population reached the highest in the history that 12 years of age Americans over the week have heard on radio up to 245 million people, equivalent to 91% Population ratio. (Nielsen, 2015)

Why the United States broadcast has high listening rate?

First, this may be related to lifestyle. Americans who live in the suburbs often drive commutes for long periods of time, and on the way to and from work, the Americans still maintain the habit of listening to the radio while driving, but the listening rate will drop after the peak time. Streaming services like iHeartRadio have seen this data, so the active introduction of streaming radio, hoping the audience left the car, will use network services continue to listen to the radio.

Another reason is that the broadcast is a simple service for listen music. Everyone knows how to use the radio, but for now a variety of new platforms to music services, for a few people sometimes it is too complicated. The other hand, a variety of music service main could free choice of favorite music, but sometimes people do not like ” too free”, that representatives need to pick up from thousands of songs to find their own like, and then classify order. However, not everyone has so much interest in music research. Sometimes to let the professional to, by the DJ to help select , more easily

BBC ‘s innovative music services – Playlister



BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) is the world’s leading public broadcaster, now has developed a number of different characteristics of radio and television channels, its brand contains public services and multicultural quality image is deeply rooted in the hearts of the British people. In order to meet the different target audience, BBC for the attention of multi-music is well known. You can listen popular, electronic and rock music on Radio 1, Radio 3 is classical music and children music on Radio 7. If you are interested in the Indian culture of Bollywood that could use Asian Network listen to your favorite music.

The BBC has unveiled a new digital music product in partnership with Spotify, Deezer and YouTube. Called ‘BBC Playlister’, the platform will let audiences add and save their favorite tracks heard on the BBC to a personal online playlist, which they can then export to one of Auntie’s above digital music partners, where they will be able to hear the music in full. (Music Week, 2013)
螢幕快照 2016-12-13 下午2.52.56.png

BBC Playlister is a wonderful innovation from the BBC that has been designed purely with audience needs in mind,” said BBC director general Tony Hall.

We have a proud musical heritage that dates back to the very beginning of the BBC’s history, and over the years we have found many new ways of bringing fantastic music to our viewers and listeners. Working with partners such as Spotify, YouTube and Deezer, we will once again transform our audiences’ relationship with music and the BBC.” (Music Week, 2013)


References :

Nielsen (2015) State of the media: Audio today- A focus on black and hispanic audiences .
Available at: [Accessed 12 December 2016].

Mcintyre. H (2015) No, Radio Isn’t Dead–In Fact, It’s Doing Better Than Ever.Available at:   [Accessed 13 December 2016].

Music Week (2015) BBC partners with Spotify, Deezer, YouTube for new digital music platform. Available at: [Accessed 13 December 2016]

Pop music map  Available at:音樂週報/item/英國bbc-6-music頻道收聽率不斷成長  [Accessed 13 December 2016]



Ass1: Blog 5 – The Meaning of Grime Music

Globally recognised ‘Skepta’ attended a relatively small venue in Digbeth. For a rapper as big as Skepta is right now, I was surprised to find out that he was booked into such a small venue. Usually, big names in the music industry always hold shows at the Genting arena, O2 Academy or The Institute. Even though Skepta could have easily sold enough tickets to perform at these venues, the reason behind the venue choice may be due to its destination in Digbeth. Digbeth is a very creative area in Birmingham. It holds plenty of independent fashion shops and skate shops, and is also known for its underground music scene. Therefore, the crowd that will attend the show may bring a rawer, gritty edge to the vibe. Which is perhaps the kind of audience Skepta prefers turning up at his shows.

During the show, Skepta surprised the audience by welcoming some local Birmingham rappers that are big in the grime game named Sox and Jaykae. The audience responded in such a positive manner and it instantly made them respect Skepta a lot more for connecting the Birmingham scene to his big movements.

Grime is a very motivational genre. William Paintin states that “Grime is a vocal led genre of UK dance music that emerged out of London around 2002. With bass heavy garage-­like instrumentals with staccato drum machine rhythms at a steady 140BPM (beats per minute)” (William Paintin. 2016). With this high BPM tempo, it is natural to feel quite pumped and full of energy when you listen to grime music. This positive, lively energy was very infectious and you could feel the vibes of the beats bouncing amongst the crowd.

Music can have a very converse, unique meaning to everyone. Naturally, people have their own taste when it comes to genre however ultimately, music is music. The genres you listen to may give you the same feeling as someone else listening to another genre. “Music is an important way that millions of people find enjoyment, define who they are, and affirm group membership.” (Andy Bennett, Richard A. Peterson. 2004).

“I may give a name to a specific piece of music, calling it “Moonlight Sonata” or “Ninth Symphony”; I may even say, “These were variations with a finale in the form of a passacaglia,” or characterise, as certain program notes ate prone to do, the particular mood or emotion this piece of music is supposed to have evoked in me. But the musical content itself, its very meaning, can be grasped merely by re-immersing oneself in the ongoing flux, by reproducing this the articulated music occurrence as it unfolds in polythetic steps in inner time, a process itself belonging to the dimension of inner time.” (Simon Frith. 2004).

The main way a grime track expresses meaning and emotion is through its lyrics. Some artists talk about their rough lifestyles, daily struggles and how they overcome them, and some talk about their toughness and the amount of money they make. So these different artists may mean more to you as you may relate more to their songs emotionally. However, Theodor Adorno’s theory of standardisation (1990) suggests that every song at its core is the same. Therefore, the emotional feeling you get is false. That the song was not made to make you feel that way, it has made you think you feel a certain way based on the way you have perceived the audio.

I personally think that there are certain cases where songs are supposed to make you feel the way you feel when listening to them or witnessing them be performed live. Especially when it comes to the genre of grime. Just based solely on the energy and similar human behaviours during the live set at Skepta’s show proved that the emotional effect it had on its listeners was shared. However, in other examples, their may be songs that listeners will really appreciate the instrumental arrangement of, yet others may feel more emotionally involved with the lyrics and vocals of the artist/song.


Adorno, T. (1990). On Popular Music. In: S. Frith and A. Goodwin, ed., On Record, 1st London: Routledge, pp.302-314

Andy Bennett, Richard A. Peterson (2004). Music Scenes: Local, Translocal and Virtual. USA: Vanderbilt University Press. pp.1.

Simon Frith (2004). Popular Music: Music and society. New York: Routledge. pp.206.

William Paintin. (2016). Grime, Hip Hop and Technology in Urban Music Scenes. Independent Study Project for BA Music. pp.2.

Ass1: Blog 4 – R&B’s Identity Crisis (Identity)

R&B has had a broad history of reinventing itself for commercial benefit. Several music industry executives, producers and song writers are now criticising R&B’s overall role and value in the current mainstream music industry.

Within academia, there are few published papers that focus on the identity of R&B therefore it is difficult to define and navigate through the genre. However, through several online articles, certain aspects of the issues regarding the area are covered.

One of the main areas of concern is the way that club pop sounds have penetrated the genre and changed it from being what it used to be. “So-called R&B radio stations play music that, save for tracks from the likes of Trey Songz or Mary J. Blige, aren’t actually R&B—yet get labeled as such because black artists are singing on them”. (M. Arceneaux. 2012). In 2012, well established musician Erykah Badu turned off her radio and shared a message via twitter, complaining about the ‘Electro Pop’ influence on R&B recently. Trey Songz, who is one of few artists that can actually be classed as a successful R&B artist emphasised Badu’s views in an interview on a radio show stating that many of his peers had started their careers with soulful music and have now changed their sounds to fit a bigger mainstream market which he claims is giving R&B a bad name and that it’s just not cool to be an R&B singer anymore. Even though artists such as Usher and Beyoncé started their careers in R&B, they are now releasing hip-hop and electronic dance music records and still being labelled as R&B artists.

Another main concern within the genre revolves around the aspect of race. “One of the most significant discussions related to R&B’s identity crisis focuses on its continuous name changes since the invention of the term “race music” by Jerry Wexler in 1949” (Burnim & Maultsby, 2006). The music industry is far from colour-blind, the race of an artist will affect how artists are labelled and promoted within the industry. In a recent interview, FKA Twigs expressed her frustrations over being placed within the R&B genre stating, “When I first released music and no one knew what I looked like, I would read comments like: ‘I’ve never heard anything like this before, it’s not in a genre,’” she continued, “And then my picture came out six months later, now she’s an R&B singer.” (Cliff, 2014) However, it seems that many white artists have been able to create R&B records without being stamped to the genre. Singers such as Justin Bieber and Robin Thicke seem to be free to hop between genre to genre contaminating the image of what the genre should sound like. “In 2013, for the first time since 1958, no black artist recorded a Billboard chart-topping single whereas Robin Thicke, Justin Timberlake, and Macklemore all topped the Rap & R&B charts that year” (J. Henry. N.d.)



Burnim, M. V., & Maultsby, P. K. (2006). African American music: An introduction. New York: Routledge.

Cliff, A. (2014, September 12). FKA Twigs is right, “Alternative R&B” must die | The Fader. Retrieved from

Jasmine Henry. (n.d). Realizing R&B’s Identity Crisis. Available: Last accessed 12/12/16.

MICHAEL ARCENEAUX. (2012). Is R&B Having an Identity Crisis? Available: Last accessed 12/12/16.

Assignment 1 Blog 5: Symbiotic Networks Capitalising Through Death: Bowie, Brixton, and Bourdieu

Rogers (2016) suggests that when a pop star that is adored dies suddenly, what they stood for becomes immediately relevant and real, the life of the mind, the realm in which they exist, becoming of incredible worth, and their presentation manipulated more so by the media. In a year riddled with the death of popular music icons – Bowie, Prince, and Cohen, to name but a few –, cultures otherwise worlds apart have come together intrinsically as if grieving as a whole rather than an individual, mourning the loss of culture rather than a singular visionary.

Bruner (1990) suggests that we make ourselves and our identities through our autobiographical narratives, which ultimately allows us to build a set of social practices and cultural rules and understandings (Trevarthen, 1999) that guide us not only through life as a whole, but through individual moments shared culturally, collecting our own bank of cultural and social capital, a symbolic currency that provides you with a particular status among particular groups or society as a whole (Bourdieu, 1984; Thornton; 1996). Contextualising and modernising this path of thought, I would argue that we not only create and develop our identities through our own autobiographical narratives, but of the autobiographical narratives of others, particularly highlighted by the coming together of seemingly unrelated communities to grieve the deaths of cultural icons such as Bowie, whose fans created and gathered at impromptu street shrines, only mere hours after his death in his birthplace of Brixton as well Berlin, Los Angeles, and New York.

Vist (2011) suggests that it is not the work of art, but the individual and contextual experiences of the art in question that is important, as if to say it is not the work Bowie produced as Aladdin Sane, but the experiences that were conceived from it that its image evoked at his Brixton shrine. Ruud (2010) claims that the way we experience music and are influenced by it depends on the context, our background, and the music itself, functioning as a mutual relationship between the music, the person, and the situation. I develop this thesis by suggesting that our own narrative paths are intertwined with those of others when the music remains the same, yet the situation changes, and the person becomes the people through a culturally symbolic moment. In one way, this symbiotic networking of people as a whole is a bank of cultural and social capital, an enriched experience enhanced by its shared notion, however on the other hand, you could argue that cultural capital is in fact a static notion, and ultimately what counts as cultural capital does not change over time (Sablan and Tierney, 2013), no matter the context, and thus the symbiotic network is nothing more than a group of people reminiscing individually. Whilst there is certainly room to discuss this notion in further research, I agree with and update Throsby’s (1999) suggestion that a cultural group can assign a cultural valuation to a given item – in this case, David Bowie and his life’s work – which ultimately differs between individuals, re-appropriating itself in particular cases as if a sufficient societal consensus is ranking the overall value against specific moments in time.

Our own autobiographical narratives are altered symbiotically through the shifting value of our own cultural capital – highlighted by the communal grieving of popular musical and cultural icons – in the sense that for a culturally and socially significant moment in popular culture, we are sharing our individual experiences collectively in a bank of capital, alleviating the high taste of that particular icon posthumously.


Rogers, J. (2016). Bowie, Prince, Cohen & The Quiet Power Of Public Grief. [online] The Quietus. Available at: [Accessed 11 Dec. 2016].

Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. 1st ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Trevarthen, C. (1999). Musicality and the intrinsic motive pulse: Evidence from human psychobiology and infant communication. Rhythms, Musical narrative, and the Origins of Human Communication, Musicae Scientiae, Special Issues, 1999-2000, pp. 157-213. Leige, Belgium: European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music.

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Routledge, Oxford.

Thornton, S. (1996). Club cultures. 1st ed. Hanover: University Press of New England.

Ruud, E. (2010). Music therapy: A Perspective from the Humanities. 1st ed. Gilsum, N.H.: Barcelona Publishers.

Sablan, J. and Tierney, W. (2016). The Changing Nature of Cultural Capital. In: M. Paulsen, ed., Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, 29th ed. Springer Netherlands, pp.153-188.

Vist, T. (2011). Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?. International Journal of Early Childhood, 43(3), pp.277-290.

Throsby, D. (1999). Cultural Capital. Journal of Cultural Economics, [online] 23(1/2), pp.3-12.

Assignment 1 Blog 4: Grime MC’s as Organic Intellectuals

On Friday 2nd December 2016, Grime artist, song-writer, and record producer Skepta ended his year headlining a sold-out show at the Alexandra Palace in London to 10,000 people, following a year that included a Pyramid-stage appearance at Glastonbury and winning the Mercury Music Prize, the first Grime artist to do so.

Mosanya (2016) has suggested that one of the mass media’s main mistakes in understanding grime is its lack of knowledge of its customs, noting reviews of the Alexandra Palace gig mistaking ‘track-reloading’ for ‘systematic glitches’, and further referencing the misinterpretation of lyrics in reviews which reinterpret the representation of the artist in slanderous lights.

McIntyre (2008) suggests that the Western popular music industry insists on a belief in individual genius figures, whom are inspired by various muses who are unconstrained and free to channel their songs from seemingly mystical sources. This is a viewpoint shared by Western audiences who oppose art over commerce, pursuing a logic that sustains the myths to proclaim and maintain cultural territory (Negus, 1997; Martin, 1995; Stokes, 1994), however I would argue that with the success of Grime this year, the genre has broken through British cultural barriers by extending their subcultural practices.

Through listening to Grime, we can experience unfamiliar social environments and conditions as seen and told through the eyes of its participant observers who communicate a sense of a lived life through communicating musically, acting as organic intellectuals (Jorgensen, 1989; Barron, 2013). Organic Intellectuals are defined not by the job they are doing but by their activities as thinkers and organisers of elements of the class to which they organically belong (Gramsci, [1930] 1999). On albums such as Kano’s Made In The Manor and Skepta’s Konnichiwa, grime emcees present themselves as organic intellectuals who are constantly interacting with society, struggling to change minds whilst engaging in the evolution of knowledge, raising issues in the public domain and defending decent standards of social well-being, freedom, and justice, all the while using their communal-based production techniques and Grime crews to redefine the music-making process (Becker, 1996; Tickle, 2001). By acting as organic intellectuals, Grime emcees are extending their subcultural communal practices by informing a wider community of their lived experiences, exposing a different side of British culture to a different class.

Grime’s success can be conceived as a victory over the aforementioned concept of genius figures channelling songs from mystical sources, as Grime lyrics attack this ideology through their reflections on lived experiences derived from harsh urban spaces marked by class, gender, and ethnic conflicts as well as financial hardships and gang violence, whilst also expressing the components of everyday life, from the pleasure of dancing and music to personal pride and relationships (McRobbie, 2005; Barron, 2013). Whilst it could be argued that numerous forms of music from folk to pop achieve this lyrically, Grime is more specific in the way it represents and conveys historical, social, and cultural moments in which the music was produced, consistently reflecting specific social conditions collectively culminating as a constituted body of music that is fixated with mapping socio-economic cultural configurations (Quirk, 2004; Stokes, 1997).

Grimes culturally-focused communal-based song-writing is just one aspect of their customs, and further research into its processes is key to correcting mass-media mistakes in understanding it.


Barron, L. (2013). The sound of street corner society: UK grime music as ethnography. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 16(5), pp.531-547.

Becker, C. (1996). The Artist as Public Intellectual. In: H. Giroux and P. Shannon, ed., Education and Cultural Studies, 1st ed. London: Routledge.

Gramsci, Antonio. Prison Notebooks. London: The Electric Book Company, [1930] 1999.

Jorgensen, D. (1989). Participant observation. 1st ed. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Martin, P. (1995). Sounds and society. 1st ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

McIntyre, P. (2008). Creativity and Cultural Production: A Study of Contemporary Western Popular Music Songwriting. Creativity Research Journal, 20(1), pp.40-52.

McRobbie, A. (2005). The uses of cultural studies. 1st ed. London: SAGE.

Mosanya, L. (2016). The biggest mistakes people make about grime music. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Dec. 2016].

Negus, K. (1997). Popular music in theory. 1st ed. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Quirk J (2004) It’s grime’s time. The Guardian, 7 August. Available at: music/2004/aug/07/popandrock (accessed 10th December 2016).

Stokes, M. (1994). Ethnicity, identity, and music. 1st ed. Oxford, UK: Berg.

Stokes, M. (1997). Voices and Places: History, Repetition and the Musical Imagination. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 3(4), p.673.

Tickle, L. (2001). The Organic Intellectual Educator. Cambridge Journal of Education, 31(2), pp.159-178.


Assignment1 Blog5-Pop Taiyu (Taiwanese language) songs as postcolonial nostalgia in Taiwan

Taiwan has undergone several economic, social and changes through its cultural history, the colonial history can retrieve back to 400 years ago when Dutch and Spanish reached the island in the 17th century. Han Chinese of Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty dominated the land during 18th-20th century, then by the Empire of Japan and then R.O.C government after the world war two. Therefore, Taiwanese music reflects those issues of the history changes in their own way with a mixed style.  Taiwanese music integrates in Chinese folk culture and many indigenous tribes with their own distinct artistic identity, various styles of folk music are appreciated in Taiwan(Wikipedia).


Postcolonial research has been officially launched quite late in Taiwan; it started until the lifting of martial law (1949-1987) which was announced by the ROC government. The compose of Taiyu ge, also called Taiwanese songs, can be traced back to the 1930s (Chun,A. Rossiter, N. and Shoesmith, B. 2004).During that period of time when Japan colonial rule, there appeared the Taiwanese musician at that time such as Yang SanLang(楊三郎) and Ye Junling(葉俊麟)who had created several classic Taiwanese songs which the previous generation like my grandparents feel enjoyable to listen to. Those Taiwanese musicians can be seen as the great masters in first generation of pop Taiwanese music.

However, these Taiwanese songs were hard hit during of ROC government policies when KMT took over Taiwan after Japan government for lasted four decades. The ROC government’s propaganda promote Mandarin and declared its legitimate status for the only representative of China compared to greater Mainland China which was controlled by communist. Therefore, popular music in Taiwan also reflects this. For years, Taiwanese pop songs were repressed despite there were some mixed-blood songs which used Japanese pop songs but filled in Taiwanese lyrics during 1950s to 1960s, and then were almost forced underground eventually until 1990s(Chun,A. Rossiter, N. and Shoesmith, B. 2004).

Nowadays, Taiwanese pop fell into two distinct categories Taiwanese pop was sung in a native dialect and was popular among older and working-class listeners; it was strongly influenced by Japanese enka. On the other hand, Mandarin pop, due to the assimilation policy of the authoritarian Kuomintang regime (1945-1996) that suppressed Taiwanese languages and culture, appealed to younger listeners.


The music texts and the elements of music that artists created are influence by the development of the society. The music and national identity of Taiwan has also been closely related. On account of the controversy and confusion of national identity between the name of states “China” and “Taiwan”, the development of music production can be discussed in the context of national identity.

The energetic power of nostalgia phenomena boost after the DPP (Democratic Progressive Party) became the leadership of the government, which emphasize the local art, local ideology instead of the great China concepts. Local Taiwanese, once taught to embrace “Chineseness”, have begun to state their own, local culture identity. •Numerous stars who once made their names as Mandarin singers are nowadays switching to recording in Taiwanese. The increased presence of the Taiwanese language in the electronic media, and the popular music which makes use of it, is part of a wider social trend(Chun,A. Rossiter, N. and Shoesmith, B. 2004).

. The county government have even introduced compulsory Taiwanese language courses into school courses, and it is strongly encouraged to make music with not only in Taiwanese, it can also be the Hakka or aboriginal languages despite the Taiwanese is the majority.

To sum up, Taiwan identity has always been an important topic in the discussion of Taiwan’s cultural traditions. It is not only an abstract issue of historical discourse, but also profoundly affects the experience of the different classes of Taiwanese people. At a period when questions of historical identity are still very much at forefront of political debate in Taiwan, Popular music, even that with as little political content as the bars songs of the Taiyu ge repertoire, can now find itself at the heart of discussions about Taiwanese identity at various levels or society(Chun,A. Rossiter, N. and Shoesmith, B. 2004).



Chun,A. Rossiter, N. and Shoesmith, B.(2004). Refashioning pop music in Asia. London: RouledgeCurzon.

Music of Taiwan. Available at:

History of Taiwan. Available at:


Assignment 1: Blog 5 – Music and The Moving Image

Since the world’s first talking picture in 1927, the electronic mediation of music has been integral in moving images and impacted the consumption of recorded popular music around the world (Negus, 1996). In addition McCabe (1998) states the film Performance paved the way for future film and give voice to the sounds and meaning of its moment. However while ‘spotting’, the paradox for directors and composers is making sure audio and visual sync and complement each other so the music accentuates and enhances the dramatic narrative.

Kaplan (cited in Negus 1966, p. 87) had presumed the image dominates the music and this was, therefore, a concern for musicians. However, I would argue music psychologically heightens suspense when visual cues are placed at specific points, adding emotional impact. I would also add that music in moving images has contributed to the popularity of different genres and engages audiences, increasing viewership and music consumption. Kassabian (2008), cited in Scott (2009) states the cue sheet is an important tool in its own right and should be as detailed as possible. Film scores and soundtracks draw the audience’s attention creating to the symbiotic relationship between visual and audio media. Similarly Kassabian (2008; 2009) states it “…offers a more expansive palette”.

The return of much waited for planet earth 2 narrated by Sir David has, transformed documentary film making and juxtaposes the “…conventional documentary style” Grimes (2015). The use of musical scores in planet earth especially trailer are vivid expression of atmosphere conveying different types of moods. This evokes grandeur movement, aggression, tension, anticipation and other mood narratives. Nonetheless, it is ‘passive’ rather than ‘active’ listening. I also refer to the much talked about nail-biting scene with the newborn baby marine iguanas, being chased by a slew of racer snakes. “Music in film is powerful. It enhances emotion, signals danger, accompanies epiphany, and depicts movement. It forms the aural element of an invented world, contributing to its authenticity and it vitality (Gengano, 2013, p.vii).

“Thanks to the radio and recording technologies, music is now the soundtrack of everyday life and no law is going to change that” (Frith cited in Clayton 2012, et al, p.150). The meticulous use of ‘serious’ music with its salient effects helps the viewer/audience to reimage scenes guiding them to understand wildlife with a new perspective. The audiences are taken on a journey around the globe to places and landscapes (Islands, mountains, Jungles, deserts, grasslands and cities) that one could never have imagined possible with accompaniment from the well-orchestrated music by Hans Zimmer, a well-acclaimed composer, and original music written by Jacob Shea and Jasha Klebe.

I would argue that the style and tone of music alters how a scene is perceived if used properly otherwise it may overpower the visual, narrative and be a distraction to the audience. According to Kassabian (2008), cited in Scott (2009) a cue sheet should reasonably answer the questions;

  • What do we hear that we don’t see?
  • What do we hear musically that we don’t hear verbally?
  • What do we hear musically before hearing it verbally or seeing it?
  • What is the audience perspective?



Clayton, M., Herbert, T. and Middleton, R. (2012) The cultural study of music: A critical introduction. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge.

Gengaro, C. L. (2013) Listening to Stanley Kubrick: The music in his films. Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press.

Grimes, M. (2015) Call it crass but there is no authority but yourself: De-canonizing punk’s underbelly. Punk & Post Punk, 4(2), pp. 189–204. Available at:

McCabe, C. (1998) Performance. London: BFI Classics.

Negus, K. (1996) Popular music in theory: An introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Scott, D. B. (2009) The Ashgate Research Companion To Popular Musicology. London: Ashagte.



Björnberg, A. (1994) Structural relationships of music and images in music video. Popular Music, 13(01), p. 51. Available at:

Clayton, M., Herbert, T. and Middleton, R. (2012) The cultural study of music: A critical introduction. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge.

Gengaro, C. L. (2013) Listening to Stanley Kubrick: The music in his films. Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press.

Grimes, M. (2015) Call it crass but there is no authority but yourself: De-canonizing punk’s underbelly. Punk & Post Punk, 4(2), pp. 189–204. Available at:

McCabe, C. (1998) Performance. London: BFI Classics.

Mundy, J. (1999) Popular music on screen: From the Hollywood musical to music video. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Negus, K. (1996) Popular music in theory: An introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Scott, D. B. (2009) The Ashgate Research Companion To Popular Musicology. London: Ashagte.