About rainiehung

I am a MA of music industry student in BCU.

Assignment 1, Blog 5 : Traditional media – RADIO

In Taiwan, broadcasters have been concerned about the gradual decline in listening rate, thinking about how to survive in the digital media era. But in the United States, according to the Nielsen survey, Americans not only listen to radio, and listen to radio for two consecutive years the population reached the highest in the history that 12 years of age Americans over the week have heard on radio up to 245 million people, equivalent to 91% Population ratio. (Nielsen, 2015)

Why the United States broadcast has high listening rate?

First, this may be related to lifestyle. Americans who live in the suburbs often drive commutes for long periods of time, and on the way to and from work, the Americans still maintain the habit of listening to the radio while driving, but the listening rate will drop after the peak time. Streaming services like iHeartRadio have seen this data, so the active introduction of streaming radio, hoping the audience left the car, will use network services continue to listen to the radio.

Another reason is that the broadcast is a simple service for listen music. Everyone knows how to use the radio, but for now a variety of new platforms to music services, for a few people sometimes it is too complicated. The other hand, a variety of music service main could free choice of favorite music, but sometimes people do not like ” too free”, that representatives need to pick up from thousands of songs to find their own like, and then classify order. However, not everyone has so much interest in music research. Sometimes to let the professional to, by the DJ to help select , more easily

BBC ‘s innovative music services – Playlister



BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) is the world’s leading public broadcaster, now has developed a number of different characteristics of radio and television channels, its brand contains public services and multicultural quality image is deeply rooted in the hearts of the British people. In order to meet the different target audience, BBC for the attention of multi-music is well known. You can listen popular, electronic and rock music on Radio 1, Radio 3 is classical music and children music on Radio 7. If you are interested in the Indian culture of Bollywood that could use Asian Network listen to your favorite music.

The BBC has unveiled a new digital music product in partnership with Spotify, Deezer and YouTube. Called ‘BBC Playlister’, the platform will let audiences add and save their favorite tracks heard on the BBC to a personal online playlist, which they can then export to one of Auntie’s above digital music partners, where they will be able to hear the music in full. (Music Week, 2013)
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BBC Playlister is a wonderful innovation from the BBC that has been designed purely with audience needs in mind,” said BBC director general Tony Hall.

We have a proud musical heritage that dates back to the very beginning of the BBC’s history, and over the years we have found many new ways of bringing fantastic music to our viewers and listeners. Working with partners such as Spotify, YouTube and Deezer, we will once again transform our audiences’ relationship with music and the BBC.” (Music Week, 2013)


References :

Nielsen (2015) State of the media: Audio today- A focus on black and hispanic audiences .
Available at: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2015/state-of-the-media-audio-today-a-focus-on-black-and-hispanic-audiences.html [Accessed 12 December 2016].

Mcintyre. H (2015) No, Radio Isn’t Dead–In Fact, It’s Doing Better Than Ever.Available at:http://www.forbes.com/sites/hughmcintyre/2015/08/13/no-radio-isnt-dead-in-fact-its-doing-better-than-ever/#1276c6547e4b   [Accessed 13 December 2016].

Music Week (2015) BBC partners with Spotify, Deezer, YouTube for new digital music platform. Available at: http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/bbc-partners-with-spotify-deezer-youtube-for-new-digital-music-platform/056313 [Accessed 13 December 2016]

Pop music map  Available at: http://www.musicmap.tw/音樂週報/item/英國bbc-6-music頻道收聽率不斷成長  [Accessed 13 December 2016]



Assignment 1 Blog 4 : 1960s rock ’n’ roll : The Youth Generation of rise.

Few eras in American history have been as controversial as the 1960s, a period marked by the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War, and the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Popular music played an incontestable role in defining the character and spirit of the 1960s. The baby boom generation played a vital role in the political and cultural events of this period, and the boomers were a generation identified with rock ’n’ roll. (Starr,  L. and Waterman, C. , 2014)Folk music has always been an important part of the American music tradition, and topical songs – personal stories linked to current political and cultural events- are an essential part of that heritage.( Friedlander, P. , 1996 )

In the 1960s, The United States was a period of turmoil and trouble of politics. One of the first issues that it is the civil rights movement. Young people in a variety of demonstrations intended to focus attention on racial segregation and discrimination. Serious racial discrimination has been the cause of American society, constantly causing resistance and struggle. It was until 1964 that the United States Congress formally abolished the apartheid system through the Civil Rights Act.


Secondly, the United States launched the Vietnam War to the United States has brought great casualties. Young students against the United States involved in the Vietnamese civil war, mass demonstrations everywhere. However, despite the opposition domestic and foreign, President Jenson continued to expand the war, the gradual escalation of the Vietnam War in the 1960s, resulting in young people’s strong dissatisfaction with the reality of society.


In this case, many young people left the big cities, left the family, to the suburbs or the countryside, the formation of community, living a simple group life. They oppose authority, against tradition (including traditional culture) and against existing order. They also do the opposite in clothing and hairstyle, and also generally take hallucinogenic drugs. So they get a nickname “Hippies”, referring to living outside the established society of non-obedient young people. Finally, sexual liberation is a prominent phenomenon in the 1960s. On the “sexual” traditional concept of suspicion and contempt, illegal cohabitation is considered to be a substitute for married life.inkr-%e5%ac%89%e7%9a%ae%e9%ad%82%e4%b9%8b%e5%a3%b9-%e6%84%9b%e8%88%87%e5%92%8c%e5%b9%b3%e7%9a%84%e8%8a%b1%e4%b9%8b%e4%bd%bf%e8%80%85-%e6%8d%8d%e8%a1%9b%e8%87%aa%e6%88%91%e7%9a%84%e6%b5%aa%e6%bc%ab

The meaning of the word “freedom” meant not only the end of racial discrimination, but also the rebellion against the previous generation of sexuality. In this context, rock and roll constitute an indispensable part of life in the 60’s. It reflects and influences the feelings and aspirations of a generation of young people, and gives their views on life, society, and the world. These are particularly clear in the folk rock songs represented by Bob Dylan.

1960s is the time of the rise of rock and roll, But also rock music against the beginning of national violence; Since then, rock music is the young people that way to against hegemony.


  • Starr, L. and Waterman, C.(2014)American popular music : From minstrelsy to MP3. Oxford University Press.
  • Starr, L. and Waterman, C. (2007)American popular music. Oxford University Press.
  • Friedlander, P. (1996) Rock and roll : A social history. United States of America, Westview Press.
  • Stuessy, J. and Lipscomb, S. (2009) Rock and roll. 6th edition : Its history and stylistic development. Person Education, Inc.,

Assignment 1, Blogs 3: City Music – Musicians of the times .

Technology led to record sales decline, however is the best for musicians of the times.  —— Terry Ellis


Currently, the digital music has posed a far-reaching threat to the record industries, that the music industry continue to try to profit the new business model, in order to break through the current record market is facing the dilemma. For Independent music by the digital music of the negative impact is small, through the digital music and the combination of the Internet, that will contribute to the independent musician music creation and publicity. Music as an element of modern life, the operation of the business mechanism to create a large number of music goods. However, in the evolution of science and technology to stimulate, its form and content also change. By the network and other new technologies, in recent years the rapid decline of the record market. According to the global music market research institutions IFPI(International Federation of the Phonographic Industry), Taiwan’s annual sales of pop music albums from nearly 50 million in 1997, fell to 6 million in 2007, the record market situation can be said consumption that all the way go down. ( Pien Tsung-Ying, 2009)
The other hand, for independent music industry since 2000 previously classified as an alternative / underground / independent artists, orchestra gradually come to Taiwan to occupy the Golden Melody Awards. Then, providing the emerging music creative performer stage music activities are also more and more such as Live house. (Jeng Kai Tung, 2005) In the past few years, the number of participants has grown explosively, with independent music as the main music festival  (Spring Scream, Formoz Festival, Hohaiyan Rock Festival). Relative to the pop music industry’s depression, while the independent music marketing grow steadily.


Founded in 1969, the British music record Chrysalis Records, founder Terry Ellis in the Singapore Music Industry Forum Music Matters recalled the history of his creation of Chrysalis Records, as a microcosm of the past 40 years of rock music history, so that participation in the era of musicians can empathy. Terry mentioned that he served as Led Zeppeline, Jeff Beck rock legendary brokers in the 1960s and 1970s, and the main job is to arrange campus tour and pub performances, the band rely on stage charm to conquer the masses, overnight became local word of mouth Celebrity. At that time, the musicians’ income is from the concert tickets, albums just “propaganda tool”, in order to let the radio to promote their performances, play their songs, had to enter the studio; and he in order to promote his own band, also had to create Chrysalias Record.



In the mid-eighties, record sales began to take off until the peak of the 1990s, the musician must find a way to get a contract, this way between the record company and the musician between the master and servant, musicians career almost all gamble in the record company’s development strategy, he believes that this is not a good of the ecology.


Terry Ellis, a 72-year-old who sees technology as a new wave of music and streaming music, Although the CD sales in decline, but the performance of ticket sales are growing, so the business model from selling CD need to change sell tickets of the show. On the record company is not a good news, but for performing arts is a good thing also with the new artist.



  • Jeng Kai Tung (2005) :  “Popular” or “Independent”? Rethinking and Exploring of Cultural Value, Music Industry and Cultural Policy    [Accessed 27 November 2016].
  • Pien Tsung-Ying (2009) : The New Business Model of the Independent Music Industry in the Digital Music Era:Taking the “City Music” Internet Digital Music Platform as Example  [Accessed 29 November 2016].
  •  Terry Ellis, Founder, Chrysalis Records (2015) : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGqoj3B8Jy4    [Accessed 28 November 2016].

Assignment 1 Blog 2: Popular music of TAIWAN

Cultural diversity is the core of Taiwan. As Taiwan used to be an important base or forte for the merchants or strong forces from different countries since 16th century, hence Taiwan have been exposed to different cultures.

For instant, American, Japanese and Korea style of music are products of foreign cultural transmission, which lead to the downfall of the local art and culture. In order to influence the youngster with the trend, some media will degrade the mother language and limit its development. Therefore, some of the youngsters do know how to sing foreign pop music, but they having issues to understand local music and tend not to concern the development of local songs. This is quite pathetic and it does concern me a lot.

Impact from the Americans is especially obvious. It could be found in many aspects, such as media, film, television industry, music and others. Among these industries, pop music is the most popular and accepted widely by young people in Taiwan, and pop music from the America does have affected the lifestyle of young People in Taiwan.

Music can reflect the times, and show the social scene at that time. Music could reflect the feelings of the people, and could convey people’s feelings. If a song is composed to convey the feeling or the same experience shared by the same people at some particular times such as nostalgia, it will therefore become more popular and a trend, a wave echoing among people who shared the same emotion. If a song is treated as a media to complain the injustice and dissatisfaction in the life we live, to convey the voice of the people, it might touch those people who take a part in the civic activities or movements, and somehow resonating becoming a popular song.

Taiwan was one of Japan colony which leads to a strong influence of Japanese culture. However, during the early era of Taiwan pop music, lots of songs are forbidden due to the Japanese rule.

Taiwan pop music start around 1910, after the 1910’s germination, 20’s heating, 30 years of flourish, and the 40’s decline due to war, this period brought to Taiwan recording technology. Recording technology having huge impact towards the industry and began the first golden age of pop music. With the production of gramophone record, music can be spread with glimpse of eye to the public which make the industry flourish.

“Taiwan popular music database”, a website supported by Taipei City Bureau of Culture, did provide a lot of information regarding Taiwan pop music. The purpose of this website is to have a plan and systematic integration for Taiwan after the recovery to the contemporary publishing of popular songs, Effective preservation of music and cultural assets, so that decentralized music resources through the digital collection has a perfect platform to organize, save, and provide a complete network of music data platform which able to reduce the burden of researchers and users in search of music-related information, and for universal access to use.


Cast net (2012): http://castnet.nctu.edu.tw/castnet/article/4364?issueID=169
Accessed 18 Nov. 2016

The cube (2014) : http://thecubespace.com/講座/細數台灣禁歌與淨曲/  Accessed 18 Nov. 2016

Gushi.tw (2015):  http://gushi.tw/完整回顧,臺灣禁歌史/  Accessed 18 Nov. 2016

Taiwan popular music database : http://www.pmdb.org.tw/race.jsp Accessed 18 Nov. 2016

Assignment 1 Blog 1:The Rise of Digital Music

Topics coveredMusic and Materiality

From phonographs to vinyl records, from cassettes to CDs, the development of technology continues to change the way for people listen to music. The emergence of digital music, is rewriting the history of the entire music industry. The digital music revenue in 2015 accounted for 45% of the music market, writing for the first time in history beyond the physical music revenue (39%) of the record.

According to the global music market research institutions IFPI(International Federation of the Phonographic Industry) latest 2015 report, music recording revenue overall grew by 3.2% to $15 billion; digital music revenue going up to 10.2% (but digital downloads decrease to 10.5%), while physical music sales going down to  4.5%. The proportion of the current market point of view, digital music revenue for the first time more than physical music sales revenue, illustrating the music industry market changes. In digital music, the most noteworthy is the subscription service. In last year, global subscription revenue grew from $ 58.9 million to $ 2 billion, while subscriptions to music services grew by 66% to 68 million. Merely in 2015, there were 27 million new subscriber user.

Compared to tape and CD these physical music, digital music is composed of numerical and coding, in the form of archives to store music. Among them, MP3 is the most popular format, popular in 1997 after the popularity of the network, due to the convenience of downloading MP3 music through the Internet, more and more people are stop to spend money to buy album, leading to Sales of physical records began to decline, musicians and record companies income plummet.
The first to break the deadlock is Apple Inc. I In 2003, apple bought millions of songs of the right from the major record companies to sell them, through in digital form in the music platform for the sale of iTunes, and designed the portable player iPod to use with iTunes . Apple sells per song, each part of the amount paid to the record company, and  that content providers can also benefit, this way can balance the digital music and the tension between the music industry. ITunes is a  successful cases to attract many industry to follow, other countries have launched a legitimate music download platform, so the digital music has gradually become a stable industry.


IFPI pointed out that the digital music service to the musician of the balance of feedback, especially YouTube. YouTube is the world’s largest online music platform that lets people search and listen to their favorite music on the platform, with 800 million people watching music videos on YouTube every month, however averaging every user on YouTube , Musicians will only get less than $ 1 income. (Billboard.com)

Hence, as digital music piping has grown in the music market, musicians and copyright owners are no longer able to calculate revenue as they have in the past, and online music services and musicians need to plan how to find the mutual value and income balance in the market.


IFPI (2016).  IFPI Global Music Report 2016.  Available: http://www.ifpi.org/news/IFPI-GLOBAL-MUSIC-REPORT-2016       Last accessed  11/11/16.

Joan E. Solsman (2016). Study: Streaming Isn’t Killing the Music Business — YouTube Is
Available: http://www.thewrap.com/study-streaming-isnt-killing-the-music-business-youtube-is/    Last accessed  11/11/16.

Glenn Peoples (2016).  IFPI Global Report: Digital Revenues Surpass Physical for the First Time as Streaming Explodes.  Available: http://www.billboard.com/articles/business/7332929/ifpi-global-digital-music-services-revenue-growth-report    Last accessed  11/11/16.

Music with heritage

Cultural of the world develop over time and music is strongly influenced by cultural. It is undeniable that each of the cultural in this world has their own story that can represent by music.


I was born in Taiwan and one of my favorite cities is Tainan. For your information, Taiwan is an Asian country with combination of cultural from different backgrounds. A decade ago, Taiwan used to be a colony of other kingdom and this have a huge impact toward our cultural. Tainan was the first city in Taiwan to flourish in the early years. In the past, it had been dominated by the Dutch, Japanese and Chinese. During the domination of others kingdom, Tainan is starting to merge these different kind of cultural to become a unique and ancient city. This is the reason why Tainan is my favorite city.


Tainan has many famous heritage, for example, the Dutch built over ten years from 1624 to 1634 and originally named was “Orange City ”, now renamed “ Anping Fort “, the other one is “ Eternal Golden Castle” by Chinese. The castle built in 1874 and completed on 1876 by the famous Qing official Shen Baozhen in order to safeguard the coast and to defend the island against Japanese invasions.
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Initially, I hope to present a program that involved music festivals that able to combine local cultural heritage. By attracting local artists to join the program, this will eventually increase the interest of public about the heritage and appreciation towards the artists.For example, by providing the students of the University of the Arts a platform to perform, and then negotiated with the local government and cultural enterprises come out with partnerships. Our main purpose to promote Taiwan’s arts and culture. It can be performed through any form of art, for example, music combined with drama or dance, or even a combination of painting. The festival is expected to begin in July and end in September each year. This is a very popular time to attract local and tourist since it is summer. However, I believe that this activity will attract many artists at the beginning of the program since it is not well known. On the other hand, I do believe that the local government can authorized strong publicity and marketing it in the major network platform. Soon or later, it will attract to the tourists who are interested in historical and cultural around the world.


Thus, this activity will enhance the local economy and tourism industry. The effects of this activity should not be underestimated. At the same time, you can also provide local artists a platform to show their talent to the world. Besides that, we also able to introduce the uniqueness of Taiwan’s culture to the world.


Last but not least, the possibility of this program is high and able to accomplish by using the right strategy. Therefore, I believe this program will have a positive impact towards the society, cultural development and the revenue of the country.


Popular music of culture week 1

Hi, I am Rainie from Taiwan. I graduated from National Taiwan University of Art with the degree of bachelor of fine art, and studied in the Chinese music department. Zhong ruan is my major and I play piano as my minor.  Zhong ruan is a kind of Chinese traditional instrument that sound quite similar to guitar which create sound from the vibrations of the strings. Besides that , I am a member of Chinese orchestra and taught ukulele in an elementary school after my university life. This job is an intriguing job for me. However, the experience did inspire me about the diversity of music. Music is not just a heritage of cultural and art but it is also function as the bridge of communication.

Music become my passion and I wanted to learn more about it. Hence, choosing the course related to music  is definitely the choice. However, I did not posses any fundamental knowledge regarding to popular music. In order to improve myself, stepping out from the comfort zone seem be the only option. I wanted to learn more about music and keep on challenging myself rather than sticking with traditional music. I understand that I would only be better if I am able to explore different kind of music.

Pop music is hard to definition, but from my personal view, it has the following characteristics:

1. Entertainment and leisure:

The recreational nature of pop culture pop culture able to provide a relaxing and  entertaining to all     and it also can create a public common interests.

2. Consumptions, commercial and industrial:

Demand of certain product will increase when most of the people are interested in it. Therefore, in order to ensure the market function accordingly, supply of product must be in increase. Thus, the cultural industry is born because of this.

3. Timeliness:

Commercialized of popular culture had led to the profits maximization as target. In order to achieve so, implementation of upgrade for cultural products must be done. It mean  a period of fashion trends of popular culture is bound to become obsolete, and was replaced by the new fashion trend.